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Kepentingan Penapis Udara Kabin Kereta – Mengapa Perlu Dijaga?
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Kepentingan Penapis Udara Kabin Kereta – Mengapa Perlu Dijaga?

Car Owners' Guides

Jika anda sebagai tuan kereta pun diwajibkan memakai pelitup muka ketika berada di luar untuk menghirup udara segar, kereta anda pun perlukan pelitup mukanya yang tersendiri!


Pelitup muka yang dimaksudkan ini bukanlah seperti pelitup muka yang anda pakai, tapi untuk kereta, ia dikenali sebagai penapis udara kabin (cabin air filter). Bagi yang tidak tahu, penapis kabin dan penapis udara enjin merupakan dua komponen kereta yang berbeza.

Penapis udara kabin berfungsi untuk menapis udara luar yang mengalir masuk ke dalam kabin kereta melalui penyaman udara selain menghalang segala kotoran, debu dan habuk daripada turut serta memeriahkan kabin anda. Hasilnya, kualiti udara serta tahap kebersihan di dalam kabin juga akan meningkat.

penapis udara kabin,glove box,papan pemuka

Penapis udara kabin ini terletak di bahagian dalam kabin kereta, kebiasaannya di bahagian glove box atau pada papan pemuka di bahagian penumpang hadapan. Seperti penapis udara enjin, penapis kabin ini juga merupakan komponen penting yang memastikan udara kabin kekal bersih, tambah-tambah pada musim COVID-19 ini di mana partikel virus telah berada di udara.

Kepentingan Penapis Udara Kabin

Dah nama pun penapis udara, jadi anggaplah ia ibarat pelitup muka yang anda gunakan ketika ini. Penapis kabin berfungsi menapis segala pencemaran dan gas toksik dari udara luar yang tidak boleh dilihat dengan mata kasar sebelum masuk ke dalam kabin. Udara yang bersih amat diperlukan memandangkan ada yang menghabiskan kebanyakan masanya di dalam kereta, tambah-tambah ketika trafik sesak semasa perjalanan pergi dan balik kerja.

kesesakan lalu lintas,trafik sesak

Ketika tersangkut di dalam kesesakan trafik, kualiti udara di jalan raya anda amatlah kotor dan berbahaya kerana bahan kimia yang dilepaskan oleh ekzos kenderaan lain di kawasan sekeliling. Di sinilah penapis kabin akan mula bekerja dengan menghalang bahan kimia daripada asap ekzos daripada memasuki kabin untuk memastikan kualiti udara dalaman yang baik bagi penumpang kenderaan.

Mengapa Penapis Udara Kabin Perlu Ditukar?

Penapis kabin yang dibiarkan kotor, tersumbat atau tercemar akan mengakibatkan masalah seperti berikut:

pencemaran udara,ekzos kereta,bahan kimia

Pencemaran Udara

Kualiti udara luar yang kotor dan tercemar merupakan antara sebab utama mengapa penapis udara kabin ini perlu diberikan perhatian. Jika anda tidak mahu udara tersebut dibawa masuk ke dalam kabin, rajin-rajinlah periksa dan tukar penapis ini bagi menghalang pencemaran udara di dalam kabin. Udara yang bersih dapat mencegah peningkatan masalah kesihatan seperti asma, alahan, resdung dan lain-lain.

lipas dalam kereta,kotor,habuk,bakteria

Habuk, Kotoran Dan Bakteria Terkumpul

Penapis udara kabin yang tidak berfungsi dengan baik akan menyebabkan udara di dalam kereta menjadi lebih teruk dengan kehadiran habuk, kotoran serta bakteria terkumpul. Tambah-tambah jenis yang suka makan atau dine-in dalam kereta. Bila kabin kereta kotor dan tercemar, maka makin seronoklah keturunan lipas beranak-pinak di dalam kabin anda.

alahan,gatal,kulit

Alahan

Alahan boleh dicetuskan oleh pelbagai jenis alergen seperti hama habuk, debunga, bulu haiwan, makanan, atau kulat. Jika sesiapa yang mempunyai alahan tersentuh atau terhidu alergen ini, mereka akan mula mendapat tindak balas alahan seperti inflamasi pada kulit atau saluran penafasan yang mengakibatkan bersin, hidung berair ataupun kegatalan pada mata.

penyaman udara,pendingin hawa,aircond

Penyaman Udara Tak Sejuk

Bila penapis kabin anda tersumbat, penyaman udara anda perlu bekerja lebih keras untuk mengepam udara melalui penapis tersebut. Ini boleh mengakibatkan bunyi bising serta prestasi penyaman udara yang kurang efektif. Dengan cuaca panas di Malaysia, pasti kabin anda memerlukan masa yang lebih lama untuk sejuk. Bila penyaman udara perlu bekerja keras, penggunaan bahan api pun boleh meningkat.

penapis udara kabin,kepentingan,udara bersih

Kesimpulannya, meskipun komponen ini kelihatan ringkas, namun ia memainkan peranan besar terhadap kabin anda. Seeloknya, tukarlah penapis kabin kereta anda setiap tahun atau setiap 15,000 km. Jika anda mula merasakan bahawa tingkap kereta mudah berkabus, penyaman udara kurang sejuk serta bau yang kurang menyenangkan seperti bau ekzos dari luar, itu tandanya anda perlu periksa penapis kabin anda. Jika ia sudah terlalu hitam dan kotor, maksudnya dah sampai masanya untuk ditukar.

 

Selangor, KL Dan Putrajaya Ke Fasa 2 PPN Jumaat Ini – Rentas Daerah, Staycation, Sukan Indoor Dibenarkan
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Selangor, KL Dan Putrajaya Ke Fasa 2 PPN Jumaat Ini – Rentas Daerah, Staycation, Sukan Indoor Dibenarkan

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Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Khas Pengurusan Pandemik COVID-19 telah bersetuju untuk membenarkan Lembah Klang iaitu Selangor, Kuala Lumpur dan Putrajaya untuk beralih ke Fasa 2 Pelan Pemulihan Negara (PPN) bermula 10 September 2021.


Jawatankuasa terbabit telah memutuskan bahawa ketiga-tiga kawasan tersebut untuk digabungkan sebagai satu kawasan jangkitan yang sama. Jadi segala pergerakan merentasi ketiga-tiga kawasan ini kini dibenarkan dan tiada lagi Sekatan Jalan Raya (SJR).

rentas daerah,PPN,fasa 2,kl,selangor,putrajaya

Berikut merupakan antara kelonggaran yang diberikan kepada negeri di Fasa 2 seperti yang ditetapkan oleh Majlis Keselamatan Negara (MKN):

  • Rentas daerah dibenarkan kepada individu yang telah lengkap menerima dua dos vaksin
  • Pasangan suami isteri jarak jauh yang lengkap divaksin dibenarkan untuk merentas negeri
  • Ibu bapa yang lengkap divaksin dibenarkan merentas negeri untuk berjumpa anak-anak di bawah umur 18 tahun
  • Dine-in dibenarkan di restoran dan premis makanan bagi pelanggan yang lengkap divaksin
  • Aktiviti pelancongan hanya dibenarkan dalam negeri yang sama yang melibatkan penginapan di hotel dan homestay bagi individu yang telah lengkap dua dos.

Kelonggaran SOP,PPN,Industri sukan,futsal,indoor,outdoor

Sementara itu, jawatankuasa turut bersetuju untuk melonggarkan SOP bagi aktiviti sukan, riadah dan rekreasi kepada mereka yang lengkap divaksin di negeri-negeri yang berada di bawah Fasa 1. Antara ketetapan yang telah diputuskan ialah:

  • Membenarkan aktiviti sukan indoor, kecuali gimnasium, kepada individu yang telah lengkap dua dos vaksin.
  • Fasiliti sukan dan rekreasi komersil tertutup (indoor) dibenarkan beroperasi dengan kawal selia, hanya kepada pelanggan yang telah lengkap divaksin. Penggunaan fasiliti perlu dilakukan secara janji temu di samping pematuhan SOP.

Menurut Perdana Menteri, keputusan ini dilakukan berdasarkan penilaian risiko semasa yang dibuat oleh Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) serta MKN dan akan berkuatkuasa pada 10 September 2021.

Bagi sektor perdagangan dan pengedaran seperti perniagaan kedai bunga/nursery, kedai peralatan outdoor dan galeri perumahan juga akan mula dibenarkan beroperasi mulai 10 September 2021 bagi negeri-negeri yang berada di bawah Fasa 1.

Bagi negeri yang diletakkan di bawah Fasa 2 dan Fasa 3, kelonggaran tambahan bagi aktiviti kedai gunting, hair dresser, dan salon kecantikan dibenarkan. Keterangan SOP terkini akan dikemaskini oleh MKN dan kementerian berkaitan dalam masa terdekat.

Kelonggaran SOP,PPN,Industri Kreatif,Fasa 1,PPN

Terdahulu, kerajaan turut memberi kelonggaran SOP kepada industri kreatif di negeri Fasa 1 untuk menghidupkan semula industri yang terkesan teruk akibat pandemik bermula 9 September 2021. Antara aktiviti yang dibenarkan:

  • Panggung wayang dengan kapasiti 50% dewan tayangan
  • Indoor busking
  • Persembahan di lounge hotel
  • Live show seperti teater, muzikal, muzik dan komedi dengan kapasiti penonton sebanyak 30%
  • Pameran seni dengan kapasiti penonton sebanyak 30%
  • Penggambaran industri kreatif di dalam dan luar studio
  • Pembangunan & penyiaran kandungan kreatif, penyampaian maklumat dan hiburan secara rakaman/ langsung dengan kapasiti 30% penonton di studio

Kelonggaran SOP,PPN,Industri Kreatif*Kredit infografik: Bernama

Setakat ini, hanya Labuan sahaja yang berada di Fasa 4 sementara Perlis, Sarawak dan Negeri Sembilan berada di Fasa 3. Kuala Lumpur, Selangor dan Putrajaya akan mengikuti negeri-negeri lain di Fasa 2 bermula Jumaat ini sementara Kedah dan Johor kekal di Fasa 1.

New 30km/h Speed Limit In The Capital Causes Chaos
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New 30km/h Speed Limit In The Capital Causes Chaos

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Malaysia too might see a 30km/h speed limit for residential areas, towns and villages.


It's only been a week since the 30 km/h speed limit was set in Paris, and already road users in the French capital have begun to protest at the new speed limit.

Paris 30km/h speed limit

According to a Bernama report quoting the Italian News Agency, ANSA, more and more protests are being staged by Parisian car drivers as they have to face new policies that have made traffic worse in the city, resulting in one big mess.

"Pedestrians are faster than cars" was one of the slogans chanted by the protesters, ANSA wrote. The report also mentioned that quarrels between drivers are frequent, especially when some drivers have complied with the new speed limit while others have disobeyed them. 

30 speed limit

Taxi drivers in Paris have also voiced their concerns over the matter as customers often ask them to step on it, because the slower speed is costing them more of their time and taxi fare.

"The journey that should have taken only 20 minutes has now increased to 33 minutes, causing taxi fares to increase." said a spokesman representing taxi drivers.

Suppose you're wondering why this bit of news is being highlighted, well it's because last May, the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Studies (MIROS) also proposed a speed limit of 30 km/h for residential areas, towns and villages as part of the national road safety plan for 2021 to 2030.

Khairul Anwar, MIROS

According to MIROS Director-General Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim, the lower speed limit proposed will allow humans to mix with traffic better and will enable the community to create a safer and healthier environment.

Malaysia is among the participating countries which have mandated the 18 resolutions of road safety, set out at the Third Global Ministerial Conference on Road Safety (also known as the Stockholm Declaration) in February 2020, 

The international conference saw 80 ministers pledging to halve road deaths by 2030 through key actions for safe roads and roadsides, including safe road use, safe speed, sober driving, preventing driving while distracted and use of safety belts and protective equipment; and fast and effective post-crash care.

 

Hyundai All-In On Hydrogen, Starting With 670HP Vision FK Prototype
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Hyundai All-In On Hydrogen, Starting With 670HP Vision FK Prototype

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Yesterday, Hyundai gave global media a sneak peek at their behind-the-scenes plotting. While they have invested heavily in battery-powered fully electric vehicles, hydrogen power is very much a part of their post-combustion roadmap.


We’ve all heard about this element being the most abundant in the universe, with the potential to solve all our energy problems if we could overcome the technical hurdles involved with cost-efficiently extracting it into its pure and useable form.

2020 Hyundai Nexo FCEV - Under Bonnet

Much like EVs were 20 years ago, Hyundai, much like Toyota, believes that recent breakthroughs and continued research into hydrogen fuel cells and its associated infrastructure can, at the very least, be offered alongside battery electric vehicles as zero emissions vehicle types in the near future with similar costs.

Alongside the current Nexo that’s due to be heavily updated in 2023, which formed from the low-volume ix35 Fuel Cell from a decade prior to 2013, Hyundai intends to launch a pair of all-new standalone FCEV models by 2025.

2020 Hyundai Nexo FCEV

Apart from passenger vehicles, hydrogen seems to be the most viable mobility and transportation solution at a commercial and industrial level. Beyond that, the South Korean automotive group sees a much brighter future for hydrogen over the long term, convinced that hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) will evolve and improve to a point where it is superior by most - if not every - metrics.

Hyundai, along with sister brand Kia, will seek to “popularise hydrogen” by 2040, starting with a number of initiatives to start positioning FCEVs as an alternative to BEVs, projecting that mass production efforts will bring costs down to parity with EVs as early as 2030.

Hyundai Vision FK Prototype

To showcase the technology, the company also showed a glimpse at the Vision FK prototype, a camouflaged all-wheel-drive four-door sports saloon with echoes of the Kia Stinger that packs a zero-emissions powertrain capable of outputting 680hp.

Built in collaboration with Rimac Automobili, the Croatian electric hypercar maker in which Hyundai owns 12%, the Vision FK is technically a plug-in hybrid. However, instead of marrying electric motors and batteries with a combustion engine, the other half of its powertrain equation is a hydrogen fuel cell.

Hyundai Vision FK Prototype

Hyundai say that the car is capable of accelerating to 100km/h from a standstill in under 4 seconds and boasts a range of 600km before needing to be topped up with hydrogen and/or charged up from the mains. It’s a novel approach that combines branching post-combustion technological paths to compensate for each other’s weaknesses.

Currently used as a “rolling lab” to explore performance and packaging solutions for their FCEV tech alongside the Rimac Nevera-derived batteries and e-motors, the Vision FK also previews Hyundai’s planned entry into motorsport with hydrogen powertrains.

Hyundai Hydrogen Fuel Cell 3rd Generation

At the other end of the spectrum, the automaker also showed off their 3rd-generation self-contained hydrogen fuel cell stack, derived from the aforementioned Nexo, which will be available in either 100kW (134hp) or 200kW (268hp) outputs. With these units being up to 30% percent more compact than their predecessors and capable of 500,000km of use, Hyundai says that they are now ready to be deployed in a variety of vehicle types.

Even more significantly, the 100kW FCEV stack was also designed to be modularly attached as part of a larger power system of up to 10 units producing a combined 1 megawatt of power in high draw applications in commercial vehicles such as lorry-trains, trams, even large ships, or as reliable energy storage and supply for IT purposes or isolated communities.

2020 Hyundai Xcient - Prototype - Switzerland

Hyundai has also confirmed that, following the successful trial period of its fleet of FCEV-powered trucks in Switzerland, mass production of the world’s first hydrogen-powered HGV - the Xcient - will proceed for a market launch in 2023. Within 5 years, by 2028, each of their commercial vehicles will be offered with an FCEV powertrain.

Looking even further into the future, their Trailer Drone Concept combines modular independently-steering FCEV units and autonomous driving technology to deliver a self-operating long-distance container transportation system with a range of more than 1,000km.

Hyundai Trailer Drone Concept

Clearly, Hyundai sees hydrogen fuel cells as a much more far-reaching technology than merely as a replacement for diesel and petrol. Given enough technological advancement, hydrogen power can permeate our lives as a clean and reliable energy source for a multitude of different sectors and industries - and Hyundai is making big moves to make sure they’re sat firmly in the centre of all this.

Porsche Mission R Is A 1,088hp Electric 'Mid-Engine' Racing Weapon
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Porsche Mission R Is A 1,088hp Electric 'Mid-Engine' Racing Weapon

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Porsche has revealed the Mission R, a racing concept vehicle that potentially previews an upcoming one-make motorsport series that could take shape as early as 2025. Even more interestingly, the car’s future-facing design elements could likely trickle into the next-generation 718 Cayman or, specifically, its electric replacement.


In 2021, we’re 6 years past the first time the German sports car maker previewed another ‘Mission’ vehicle, the Mission E, which portended the company’s foray into fully electric cars and powertrains.

Rather than focusing on an upcoming showroom EV model, as they did with their Taycan progenitor, the Mission R takes an alternate route through the crucible of motorsport.

2021 Porsche Mission R Concept - IAA

The car is dimensionally more compact than Porsche’s current Cayman or Boxster measuring just 4,326mm in overall length, but wider at 1,990mm and lower at a mere 1,190mm.

Meanwhile, despite its racing focus, there's a much larger story unfolding when examining its design. Beyond that extremely wide track and big aero, there’s definitely a road car hiding somewhere in there - a rather elegant looking one too.

Of course, the automaker has not commented on the relation between the Mission R and any possible production model, though they have previously hinted at the development of an electric mid-engine sports car similar to the 718, either as a sister model or a direct replacement.

2021 Porsche Mission R Concept - IAA

Porsche is presenting the fully electric racing concept at this year’s ongoing IAA in Munich, much like the pre-Taycan Mission E did.

In fact, it takes plenty of tech from Porsche's first production EV, such as its 800V architecture and dual motor powertrain with the front axle catered to by a 435hp motor while the rears receive a beefier 653hp motor. However, the Taycan’s 2-speed transmission has not been carried over, opting instead for a single reduction gear for quicker acceleration and less weight.

The Mission R's combined output would typically be capped at 610hp in its ‘standard’ mode to balance speed and endurance but is able to unleash up to 1,088hp in its most intense hot lap qualifying mode. With so much power and such a lightweight carbon fibre and NFRP (natural fibre reinforced plastic) body that comes in under 1,500kg, the 0-100km/h dash is done in less than 2.5 seconds while top speed is 300km/h.

2021 Porsche Mission R Concept - IAA

Feeding the twin-motor setup is a high voltage battery packing 80-85kWh of energy capacity, which Porsche claims should offer around 40 minutes of hard racing. The bulk of the cells are concentrated behind the driver, approximately where the engine would sit in a typical mid-engine performance car, giving the Mission R a familiar set of dynamic characteristics.

Other racing-specific additions include adjustable flaps on the front wing and a two-stage rear wing with support for F1-style Drag Reduction System (DRS). When the Mission R evolves into a more complete product, the car is intended to be sold to and used by customer racing teams with special modifications to ensure an easy transition from Porsche’s current crop of 911 GT3 Cup and GT3R racers.